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Chapter 4. Iran Historical Maps
Arsacid Parthian Empire, Armenian Kingdom

Chapter 4. Iran Historical Maps
Arsacid Parthian Empire
Armenian Kingdom

056 Parthian Empire’s beginning 3rd Century BC Map 1
Parthian Arsacid Empire
Arsacid Dynasty: 250 BC – 224 AD
Parthian Empire: The Beginning, during Arsaces I
Ashkanid (Arsacid) Emperors’ title was "Ashk". Each emperor was also known by his title of "Ashk". For instance Arsaces I was officially "Ashk I" or Ashk The First, and then came Ashk II, Ashk III and so on...This is the Map of Parthia under Arsaces I, founder of the Arsacid dynasty. Parthia was originally a part of the Seleucid Empire, which was one of the successor realms to Alexander’s huge empire. The Seleucid Empire began to slowly disintegrate during the 3rd century BC, first with the secession of Bactria under Diodotus I in the 250s, and then Parthia under Arsaces I. The Seleucid Empire remained the gravest threat to Parthian independence until the middle of the 2nd century BC, despite wars with Bactria and invading tribes from the north and east.

057 Parthian Empire’s greatest extent 1st Century BC Map 2
Mithradates II The Great (123 BC - 88 BC) Map
Parthian Empire: Greatest Extent during Mithradates II
Map of Parthia at its greatest extent during the 1st century BC, after the conquests of Mithradates II, but not including the temporary gains of Pacorus I under Orodes II.

058 Parthian Empire’s trade routes 2nd BC - 1st AD Map 3
Parthian Empire: Parthian Economy and Trade Routes
Economic map of the region during Parthian times, showing trades routes. The major trade routes during most of the period from 300 BC up to 300 AD are shown in red on this map. The Parthians derived much of their power and nearly all of their wealth from their ability to control these trade routes. Trade was encouraged and facilitated by the Parthians through direct control and policing of the routes, maintaining the roads, and maintaining relations with their neighbors to the east and west as best as possible. The Parthians were very careful to maintain their position as middlemen in the trade network; they did their best to prevent any direct contact between the west and either India or China. The Romans did eventually establish direct trade with India during the 1st century AD through the Red Sea.

059 Parthian Empire’s sub kingdoms 14 AD Map 4
Parthian Empire: Parthian Sub-kingdoms
Map of the major subkingdoms of the Parthian Empire. The Parthian Empire included a number of subkingdoms ruled by their own native dynasties. These kingdoms were located on the peripheries of the empire and acted as buffers between the areas of direct Parthian control and the rest of the world. The general policy of the Arsacids was to maintain direct control over the Parthian homeland and the main trade routes between the East and West, thus ensuring recruits for their army and income from tolls and tariffs. The subkingdoms were allowed to keep their semi-autonomous status in return for loyalty to the Parthian king of kings (Shahanshah), military support when requested, and tribute. Needless to say this was not always forthcoming and there were numerous campaigns to ensure the proper subservience of the various subkingdoms, some of which maintained a virtually independent status for fairly long periods, particularly during the numerous civil wars between rival Arsacid claimants to the Parthian throne. Many of the subkingdoms eventually ended up with Arsacid dynasties, most notably Armenia. Several of the kingdoms had their own coinage, independent of the Parthians. Little is known about most of the subkingdoms, and most of what is known is derived from these subsidiary coinages.

060 Parthian Empire mints and antiquities Map 5
Parthian Empire: Parthian Archeological Mints
Map of the known locations of Parthian mints. This is the map of the Parthian mints; Ecbatana is by far the most commonly found on the drachms, mainly because the symbol for Ecbatana became frozen as part of the reverse design of the drachm, regardless of where it was minted. Thus, from the latter half of the first century AD onwards, the mint monogram of Ecbatana became a standard element in the design of the Parthian drachms. One mint that is not represented on the map is the travelling court mint, or katastrateia, which accompanied the Parthian rulers during their campaigns.

061 Parthia and Scythia at Mithradates II The Great era 100 BC Map

062 Parthian Arsacid Empire of Phraates V at 1 AD Map

063 Armenian Kingdom, Tigranes Expansion of Armenia 95 BC - 66 BC Map
Tigranes created a strong and independent Armenia using battles and diplomacy. Tigranes Armenia had survived the Roman and Parthian Empires as an independent state.
Armenia was a Parthian subkingdom but from time to time flirted with Rome. Certain Roman-Parthian wars had occurred over Armenia. Even though Armenia often flirted with Rome; however, eventually Armenia always returned or brought back to mother Parthia.

064 Roman annexation of Armenia and client states before Roman-Parthian War 50 AD Map
Armenian Kingdom and other client states caught between Parthian Empire and Roman Empire during 50 AD right before annexation of Armenia and other client states by Rome which caused the beginning of yet another Roman-Parthian War. Roman-Parthian Wars occurred 66 BC - 217 AD.

065 Roman-Parthian Wars 58 - 60 Campaign Map

066 Roman-Parthian Wars 61 - 63 Campaign Map

067 Roman-Parthian Wars 66 BC - 217 AD Map 1
The traditional border between Rome and Parthia, lasting until Trajan's invasion.

Parthia Versus Rome Maps
The Romans and Parthians fought a series of wars beginning with Crassus' invasion in 52 BC - 53 BC and ending with Macrinus' ignominious defeat and retreat in 217 AD. During this time it became clear to both sides that a natural boundary existed in northern Mesopotamia beyond which it was difficult, if not impossible, for either side to maintain a permanent foothold. The Parthians were generally less aggressive than the Romans, and generally sought to maintain the status-quo, particularly with regard to Armenia, in part because they were nearly constantly engaged in suppressing internal rebellions, fighting civil wars, or defending their eastern borders. The Romans invaded Parthian territory under Crassus, Mark Anthony, Nero, Trajan, Lucius Verus, Marcus Aurelius, Septimius Severus, Caracalla and Macrinus. The only lasting result of these invasions was the takeover of part of northern Mesopotamia by Trajan in 116 AD, a permanent loss to Parthia which was enlarged under Lucius Verus in 165 AD.

068 Roman-Parthian Wars 66 BC - 217 AD Map 2
Changes in the border brought on by first Trajan and, later, by Lucius Verus.

069 Roman-Parthian Wars 66 BC - 217 AD Map 3
Parthian invasion routes into Roman territory, including Armenia.

070 Roman-Parthian Wars 66 BC - 217 AD Map 4
Roman invasion routes into Parthian territory, including major battle sites.

071 Parthian Empire greatest extent Map
Arsacid (Ashkanid) Empire (250 BC - 224 AD)

072 Parthian Cities Assak Map
Assak (near Quchan), was the capital of "Ashk I: Arsaces I" (Arashk), the Head of Arsacid (Ashkanid) Dynasty. Arashk held his coronation on 250 BC and died in a battle with Bactriana (Bakhtar) State, which just claimed independence from Iran. Arashk died in the battle but Bactriana's independence did not last long, Ashks made sure that she would return to The Mother Persia soon!

073 Parthian Cities Hecatompylos Map
Hecatompylos (near Damqan), was the capital of "Ashk II: Tirdates I". The city was famous for its amazing architectural aspects. Heart of Arsacid Empire: All Arsacid's important Cities were located at South of Caspians, Semnan and North of Khorasan states. The Arsacid Empire lasted from 250 BC to 224 AD, about 462 years of pure Mitra Power (Sun Goddess), which was the Ancient Arsacid Philosophy.

074 Parthian Cities Map
Arsacid Empire Overview
Arsacid Dynasty: 250 BC – 224 AD
The overview of The Arsacid Parthian Empire of Iran. Parthians primarily pushed the Greeks and Macedonians out of Iran and put an end to the Greek occupational government of Seleucids. This was the end point to the Alexander's Hellenistic and Seleucids Period. Later on Arsacids gotten involved with a new enemy, The Roman Empire and successfully pushed them out of Persian Territories. Arsacid Dynasty is basically the reason that Iran regained its independence from Greeks, and safe-kept it from the Romans! The First Persian-Roman conflict and contact was during "Ashk IX: Mithradates II" The Great's period.

075 Parthian Empire Map 1
Arsacid Empire during "Ashk I: Arsaces I" (Arashk), 250 BC - 248 BC The head and starter of Arsacid Dynasty and later on his brother "Ashk II: Tirdates I", 248 BC - 211 BC. Arsacid Empire greatly expanded during Tirdates I. The head of Arsacid Dynasty Arashk chose Assak (near Quchan) as his capital and held his coronation in Assak.

076 Parthian Empire Map 2
Arsacid Empire during "Ashk IX: Mithradates II" The Great (123 BC - 88 BC).
Arsacid Parthian Empire was at its greatest extent. Arsacid Emperors used the title word of "Ashk" which was the root of the word Ashkanid (Arsacid). Therefore Arsacid Emperors had a title and then their name; basically the written form of their name was: "title number: name number", for example: "Ashk IX: Mithradates II". Arsacid Parthian Empire was at its greatest extent during "Ashk IX: Mithradates II" The Great. This map is the boundaries of Arsacid Empire during "Ashk IX: Mithradates II" The Great.

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