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Chapter 1: History of Iranian Military Uniforms
Susian - Median Uniforms


Pictorial History of Iranian Military Uniforms
Book in 23 Chapters
Chapter 1. Index, Prologue, Terminology Legend, Susian, Median
Ahreeman X

February 23, 2012

Susa War Horse Banner Head
Used as official Standard Banner Head for Susian Military Campaigns

Chapters Index
Chapter 1. Index, Prologue, Terminology Legend, Susian, Median
Chapter 2. Achaemenian 1
Chapter 3. Achaemenian 2
Chapter 4. Achaemenian 3
Chapter 5. Achaemenian 4
Chapter 6. Achaemenian 5
Chapter 7. Achaemenian 6
Chapter 8. Achaemenian 7
Chapter 9. Parthian 1
Chapter 10. Parthian 2
Chapter 11. Sassanian 1
Chapter 12. Sassanian 2
Chapter 13. Sassanian 3
Chapter 14. Saffarid
Chapter 15. Buyyid, Qaznavid, Qurid
Chapter 16. Kharazmian
Chapter 17. Safavid
Chapter 18. Afsharid
Chapter 19. Zand
Chapter 20. Qajar
Chapter 21. Pahlavi 1
Chapter 22. Pahlavi 2
Chapter 23. Pahlavi 3, Epilogue, Bibliography, Sources


Karibu Shah Shushinak the 1st Shah of Iran from Susa Dynasty 3750 BC
Turned Susa City State (6000 BC - 3750 BC) to Susa Kingdom (3750 BC - 539 BC)


The micro goal for the creation of this book is to educate the young generation of Persians to their rich military history, national history and Persian culture. The macro goal for the creation of this book is to educate the global public and to introduce them to Iran’s military and national history and culture. May this document unveil the historical veils installed to obscure and cloud the Iranian history.

The present book’s images have been compiled from the works of various illustrators and photographers plus my own historical photo and illustration collections and illustrations, graphic designs and art work created by me. The works of various historians, scholars, photographers, illustrators in addition to my writings, illustrations and compilations have been used to create this book. After compilation of all the information and art, the writings and information were organized and the photos and illustrations were transformed to digital images (if needed), photo shopped, graphic designed and enhanced to the best of ability and has been turned to the best digital versions possible. The complete document has been designed and programmed to ease the study for beginner history students and to satisfy the taste of the advanced scholars and history lovers. For your viewing pleasure, every single image has been digitalized, photo shopped, sharpened and enhanced to the best possible version. Each image text has been described historically accurate and simplified for ease of comprehension.

The present book is the most complete selection of the Iranian military uniforms online or offline. Enjoy the Pictorial History of Iranian Military Uniforms.


Karibu Shah Shushinak of Susa Dynasty, 1st Shah of Iran 3750 BC

Terminology Legend

Throughout the book, I will use various military history and political history terminology from various historical eras of Iran. The terminology which I use will be in the Avestan Persian, Median, Ancient Persian, Parthian Pahlavi, Sassanian Pahlavi and Modern Persian languages. For your better understanding of these ancient and nostalgic Persian terms, you can review this legend:

Median Era

Spada = Army
Pasti = Infantry
Rsika = Spearmen
Anuvaniya = Archers
Asabari = Cavalry


Achaemenian Era

Important Note
Immortals = Gard-e Javidan, Elite Persian Special Forces who owned their own infantry, cavalry and naval regiments.

Achaemenid Army Organizational Chain of Command
Dathabam = Unit of 10 soldiers (Squad)
Dathapatis = Dathabam leader (Sergeant)
Satabam = Unit of 100 soldiers (Company)
Satapatis = Satabam leader (Captain)
Hazarabam = Unit of 1000 soldiers (Battalion)
Hazarapatis = Hazarabam leader (Colonel)
Baivarabam = Unit of 10,000 soldiers (Division)
Baivarapatis = Baivarabam leader (General)

Achaemenid Army Ranks
Arteshbod (Commander in Chief)
Spahbod (Field Marshal)
Baivarapatis (General)
Hazarapatis (Colonel)
Satapatis (Captain)
Dathapatis (Sergeant)

Achaemenid Military Units
Asabari = Cavalry
Sparabara = Long Shield Bearers Frontline Infantry
Takabara = Short Wicker Half Moon Shield Bearers Secondary Infantry
Thanvabara = Archers
Arstibara = Royal Guards
Amrtaka = Immortals

Achaemenid Military Terms
Arteshtaran = Warriors
Arteshtaran Salar = Warriors Leader
Arteshbod = Commander in Chief of Warriors
Spahbod = Field Marshal
Asabari = Cavalry
Asapatis = Cavalry leader

Achaemenid Navy Terms
Navpatis = Naval Leader
Navban = Naval Officer
Navi = Seaman
Nav = Navy Vessel, Ship

Achaemenid State Terms
Khashtara = State
Khashtaraban= Governor
Databdara = Minister of Courthouse


Sassanian Era

Sassanid Army Ranks
Eran Spahbod = Commander in Chief
Spahbod = Field Marshal
Padgospan = Major General, Sarlashkar
Farmandar = State Military Battlefield Commander
Paygospan = Provincial Army Commander
Marzban = Border Guards Commander
Sardar = Commander, Brigadier General
Salar = Leader, Captain
Padan = Officer

Sassanid Military Units
Paygan = Infantry
Savaran = Cavalry
Azadan Savaran = Noble Knights
Poshtiqban = Royal Guards
Grivapanavara = Heavy Cavalry
Kamandaran = Foot Archers
Zhayedan = Immortals

Sassanid Military Terms
Spah = Army
Poshtiqban = Royal Guard
Poshtiqban Salar = Royal Guards Leader
Paygan Salar = Infantry Leader
Savaran = Cavalry
Savaran Salar = Cavalry Leader
Arg = Fort, Castle
Argbod = Fort Commander
Asp = Horse
Aspbod = Cavalry Commander
Tir = Arrow
Tirbod = Archers Commander
Vuzurgan = Nobles, Greats
Vuzurg = Noble, Great
Vuzurg Sardar = Commander in Chief
Arteshtaran Salar = Leader of Warriors
Vuzurg Arteshtaran = Commander in Chief of Warriors

Sassanid State Terms
Andarzbod = Counseling Prime Minister
Satrap = State (Today’s Ostan)
Satrapi = Governor (Today’s Ostandar)
Farmandari = Province (Today’s Farmandari)
Farmanban = Province Administrator (Today’s Farmandar)
Istan = District (Today’s Bakhsh)
Istandar = District Administrator (Today’s Bakhshdar)

Sassanid Royal Terms
Shahanshah = Emperor, King of Kings
Shah = King (Sha)
Padeshah = Lower King
Shahbanu = Empress, Shah’s Lady
Shahzad = Prince (Shahzade, Shahpour, Shapour)
Shahdokht = Princess
Shahriar = Lord

Sassanid Zoroastrian Clerical Terms
Mobadan Mobad = Mobade Mobadan, National Chief Priest
Mobad = High Priest
Moq = Priest
Hirbad = Zoroastrian Fire Temple Caretaker
Mobadan = High Priests
Moqan = Priests

Sassanid Terms
Bezashk = Doctor


Please enjoy the book:

Ancient Susian Soldier from Kingdom of Susa (3750 BC - 539 BC)

Susa City State (6000 BC - 3750 BC)
Susa Kingdom (3750 BC - 539 BC)

Important Note
Susa is not Elam
Susa is not Elam. There were times that Elam, Kish, Babylon and Assyria invaded and occupied Susa. There were also times that Susa invaded and occupied Elam and Chaldea; however, Elam and Susa were two separate civilizations. Elam was a Hemitic Civilization but Susa was a None Aryan Local Iranian Civilization. Elamites were Hemitic but Susians were of the “None Aryan Local Iranian Races”. Many scholars out of historical ignorance refer to Susa as Elam and refer to Susians as Elamites. Due to this ignorance, these so-called scholars have denied the existence of the Susa Civilization as the 1st Iranian Civilization. Some of these so-called scholars twist the history due to historical ignorance but others do it intentionally. The second group are Anti Iranian Historians, so for once and for all let us make it very clear that Susa is not Elam.

For more information read:

Iran Dynasties and Monarchs of 8000 Years

8000 Years of Iranian History

Iranian Susian Spearman doing Ancient Persian Salute - Susa Kingdom (3750 BC - 539 BC)
Susian Ancient Persian Salute is the further proof that Susians were not Elamites.
Susians were of Local Iranian Races but Elamites were of Semitic and Hemitic Races.
“Ancient Persian Salute” (right hand) of Susa was pre “Persian Aryan Salute” (right hand) of Achaemenids.

Early Iranian Susian Light Infantry Axe-man and Archer from Kingdom of Susa

Early Susian Infantryman

Iranian Susian Front Archers

Iranian Susian Secondary Archers

Susian Foot Archers

Susian Assyrian Cavalry and Infantry Mercenaries 655 BC

Susian Archer Cavalryman
From Susian domination of Elam, Chaldea, Kish, Babylon and Assyria Era when Susa was the dominating power of the region.

Early Susian War Transport Chariot with Donkeys and Mules

Iranian Susian War Chariot

Susian 4 Horse Command War Chariot of Kingdom of Susa

Susian War Chariots of Kingdom of Susa in action

Iranian Susian War Elephant Unit

L – R: Iranian Susian archer, light infantryman and commander

Susian Forces
L – R: Susian Assyrian Mercenary, Susian Commander, Iranian Female Archer

Iranian Susian Soldier of Early 6th Century BC

Iranian Susian Soldier 6th Century BC

Iranian Susian Lotus Standard Bearer of Pre and Post Achaemenian Era 6 BC

Iranian Susian Spearman Soldier of Pre and Post Achaemenian Era 6 BC

Iranian Akhtar Kaviani Banner Bearer of Pre-Historic Era


Median Kingdom (728 BC - 559 BC)

Median Heavy Armored Infantryman

Median Spearman

Iranian Median Archers

Median Cavalry Archer Officer of Pre and Post Achaemenian Era 6 BC

Median Cavalry Spearman of Pre and Post Achaemenian Era 6 BC

Median Mounted Skirmishers

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