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Chapter 14: History of Iranian Military Uniforms
Saffarid Uniforms


Pictorial History of Iranian Military Uniforms
Book in 23 Chapters
Chapter 14. Saffarid
Ahreeman X

February 23, 2012

Saffarid Akhtar Kaviani Standard Banner of Yaqub Leis 861 – 879
“Akhtar Kaviani” (Kaviani Star) Banner was designed by Yaqub in tradition of “Derafsh Kaviani” (Kaviani Standard) of the ancient Persian era and for the purpose of reviving the Persian Culture and History.

Saffarid Dynasty (867 AD - 1003 AD)

Saffarid Persian Standard Bearer 9 AD
Carrying a Saffarid Battalion Standard Banner during the battles

Yaqub Leis the Great Saffarid Liberator and Shah of Iran 9 AD

Yaqub Leis Saffarid (Yaqub the Great)
After 222 Years of silence, suffocation and occupation under the Arabs, a gleam of hope formed and a shining star had appeared in the skies of Iran ……

And then came Yaqub ……

Yaqub Leis Saffarid, the Liberator of Iran and the greatest Iranian Freedom Fighter of all times.
Yaqub Leis Saffarid Life (840 – 879)
Yaqub Leis Saffarid Reign (867 – 879)

Yaqub Leis the Great Saffarid Liberator of Iran 9 AD

Important Dates
858 AD: Yaqub Leis Saffarid starts his rebellion against the Arab Occupational Government (Bani Abbasid) in Iran.
861 AD: Yaqub starts the Dynasty.
867 AD: Yaqub enters Zaranj (Capital of Sistan) and officially starts the reign of Saffarids.
873 AD: Yaqub liberates majority of the Iranian states from the Arabs and liberates Iran.
873 AD: The official Independence Year of Iran. Liberator of Iran: Yaqub Leis Saffarid.
879 AD: Yaqub passes away and Amr O Leis, his brother takes over.
900 AD: Amr gets defeated by Ismail Samanid and decline of Saffarid Dynasty begins.
1003 AD: Saffarid Dynasty's influence practically ends.

Yaqub Leis Saffarid Liberator of Iran 9 AD

Yaqub is known as the “Iranian Robin Hood” because before starting the Saffarid Dynasty, he used to steal from the rich and give to the poor. Yaqub was sort of a local “Folk Hero”. Yaqub was born in State of Sistan, Iran. Yaqub was born on 840 in the small village of “Karmin” located east of Zaranj (Today’s Border Town at South East of Afghanistan) and west of Bost (Today’s Lashkar Gah at South of Afghanistan). Karmin was basically a village near Zaranj (back then a mid size city which later on Yaqub had turned it in to a major city). Today’s Zaranj is an Afghan border town near Zabol (Iran) and is far from once glorious stature which Yaqub had provided for her.

Yaqub was born and grew up in poverty. Yaqub is famous for eating Bread with Onion and even after he become king; occasionally he ate Bread with Onion. When officials inquired why, he stated:

Officials: Why are you still eating bread with onion?
Yaqub: So I remember where I came from and to never forget to strengthen and aid the poor to stand on their feet.

Yaqub Leis Saffarid Liberator and Shah of Iran 9 AD

Yaqub’s father was Leis a coppersmith and Yaqub had learned the skill from his father. Leis was killed during the sectarian violence era in the region. Yaqub grew up in the middle of a sectarian violence between Sunnis and Khavarej (Kharijites) Muslims. Due to this intolerable violence, in early teens his family moved to Zaranj where the teenage Yaqub had to work a as a simple coppersmith to provide for his family while his brother Amr (Amr O Leis or Amr Ol Leis) got a job as a Mule and Donkey Drafter and Renter.

Coppersmith translates to Saffar in Persian. Yaqub was from a family of Saffars so they were known as Saffars. This is why when he started the Dynasty; he referred to it as Saffarids Dynasty. Yaqub wanted the world to know and never forget that he was a simple coppersmith and his dynasty are dynasty of simple coppersmiths.

Yaqub Leis Saffarid Liberator and Shah of Iran 861 AD - 879 AD

When Taherids (Persian Traitor Dynasty faithful to the Arab Caliph) charged from Khorasan (north) to Sistan (south) in order to take over Sistan, Yaqub joined the resistance and fought under a local commander against the Taherids when he was only 14 years old (854). After the death of his commander, he had become the commander (Amir). From then, Yaqub conquered the vicinity areas and then various surrounding states and established himself and started the Saffarid Dynasty when he was only 21 years old (861)

Yaqub entered Zaranj (Capital of Sistan) and officially started the reign of Saffarids on 867 when he was only 27 years of age.

Yaqub Leis Saffarid the Great Liberator of Iran on horse 9 AD

Yaqub Liberator of Iran (873)

Once Yaqub become powerful, eventually the Arab Caliph decided to invade the East Iran, so Yaqub entangled with the Caliph and the Arabs. Yaqub pushed the Caliph back to Iraq and conquered majority of the Iranian States. Yaqub was a great military commander. Yaqub liberated Iran (majority of Iranian states) on 873 when he was 33 years old.

Once Yaqub liberated the majority of the Iranian States, he headed to Baghdad to destroy the Arab Caliphate. Iranian traditional religious Muslims either amongst the troops or amongst the ordinary people have panicked that if they overthrow the caliph, the curse of Allah will be upon Iran and Iranians. Yaqub charged all the way to vicinities of Baghdad, yet due to Arabo-Islamic Propaganda and "Religious illiteracy" of Iranians, he got defeated in Iraq and had to retreat to Khuzestan. On 876 AD, Unsuccessful attempt of Yaqub Leis Saffarid to take over Baghdad, the capital of Islamic Empire, caused him great disappointment from religiously naive and politically illiterate Iranian soldiers of his ranks! He changed his mind to conquer Baghdad. He was so close yet so far to end the tradition of Caliphate in Baghdad.

Yaqub Leis Saffarid Liberator of Iran and Commander in Chief of the Persian Armed Forces on the horse 9 AD

Death of Yaqub Leis Saffarid

Yaqub had bladder and stomach problems which he refused to be treated by doctors. Yaqub did not care to go to hospitals nor allowed doctors to visit him. Yaqub believed that he could overcome the illness on his own and due to his natural strength. The illness finally caught up with him and caused his death. On 879 at the age of only 39 he passed away and his younger brother Amr replaced him.

Yaqub had passed away in Gondi Shahpour (Today’s Jondi Shapour) in state of Khuzestan, Iran. He was buried in Dezful, Khuzestan. Today, his simple tomb and mausoleum stands tall in Dezful, Iran. Yaqub’s tomb is run down due to the Islamic Regime’s neglect, but Yaqub was a simple coppersmith and in life he never cared for luxury; therefore, I believe in death, Yaqub could be careless of how his tomb may look.

Yaqub is not alive due to a glorious and luxurious tomb but Yaqub is alive because of what he has achieved. Yaqub is alive in Iranians’ hearts and souls. Yaqub is alive because Iran is alive. Actually Iran is alive because once upon a time Yaqub was alive!

879 marked the death of a great man; furthermore, one of the greatest Iranians of all times. There are only 9 Iranians whoever been granted with the title of “Great”. One of these 9 Great Shahs was Yaqub.

For more information on 9 Great Iranian Shahanshahs read:

8000 Years of Iranian History: Part 3

Yaqub Leis Saffarid Statue in Dezful, Khuzestan, Iran

Today’s Iran Exists because of Yaqub!

Ferdowsi wrote Shahnameh to revive the Persian language but would there be a Persian language to revive at Ferdowsi’s era if there was no Yaqub in early days?

Ferdowsi 940 – 1020
Ferdowsi wrote Shahnameh 976 – 1010 (34 Years)
Ferdowsi wrote Shahnameh during the reign of Samanids and Qaznavids Dynasties.
Samanid Dynasty (864 - 1004)
Mansour I Samanid (961 - 976)
Nuh II Samanid (976 - 997)
Sebüktigin [Mahmoud] Qaznavid (977 - 1030)

Yaqub Leis Saffarid Statue at Dezful, Khuzestan, Iran

Historical Revisionists (Arabs and Afghans)
People who claim Yaqub as their own!

Then we got Arabs who register Yaqub as an Islamic Scholar, Ruler and part of the Islamic History!

Then we got Afghan so-called Nationalists who claim half of the Iranian Dynasties including Saffarids as their own and they claim Yaqub as an Afghan Hero!

I truly don’t know if these Afghans are historically ignorant or do they state these claims intentionally to create an identity and history of their own for Afghanistan?!

These Afghans must comprehend that Afghanistan along with the rest of the past states of Iran (today’s independent countries) have never had a history of their own! Their history is the Iranian history. Afghanistan and every other “Istan country” (Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, etc.) are all fabricated countries created by either the British or the Russian Empires.

Afghanistan in her today’s form as an independent nation have only existed for more or less about 200 years. Until a Couple centuries ago Afghanistan was basically 2 states of Iran (Ariana and Bakhtar). Afghanistan is not a country but it is an abomination created by the British to separate our Afghan brothers from us. Afghanistan is a fabricated country the same as Iraq, Azerbaijan and the rest. We are all Iranians. It is time for Afghans and the rest of these Iranians to comprehend that they do not have a history of their own. Their history until a couple of centuries ago was a part of the Iranian history. Their personal history did not exist further than 2 centuries ago. All of these countries exist because the British and Russian Imperialism have created them!

It is time for countries of Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, etc. and the people of Kurdistan, Baluchistan, etc. to comprehend that they are Iranian and all of these identities have been created for them by the British and Russians. The only identity these people have is the “Iranian Identity”.

Yaqub Leis Saffarid Statue at Yaqub Circle in Dezful, Khuzestan, Iran

Anti Yaqub Movement
People who belittle Yaqub!

Many so-called Iranian scholars and historians either intentionally (so they don’t have to break down the walls of the traditional history) or unintentionally (due to historical ignorance) undermine Yaqub and belittle his work.

They say he was not the liberator of Iran.
I say if you liberate the majority of the Iranian States, then you are the Liberator of Iran.
They say he was a Muslim Fanatic.
I say he used Islam as a political tool.
They say I over exaggerate his achievements.
I say open your eyes and your minds and read the true history of Iran and know Yaqub:

222 Years of Struggle for Independence of Iran: Part 4

Yaqub Leis Saffarid Statue at the Yaqub Circle in Dezful, Khuzestan, Iran

Let Us be Truthful to History

Let us be very frank:

Ferdowsi wrote Shahnameh using pure Persian terms to revive the Persian language and he did work hard for over 30 years to do this task.

But, there exists a But ……

But if it was not because of Yaqub, then there would have been no Persian Language existing at the time for Ferdowsi to revive!

Yaqub Leis Saffarid Circle in Dezful, Khuzestan, Iran

Yaqub Made Persian the Official State Language Again

Yaqub Leis Saffarid (840 – 879) forcefully had restored the Persian Language and ordered all Iranian Schools and Universities to once again for the first time after 651 (End of Sassanid Dynasty) to teach Persian as the official language of Education. In addition Yaqub demanded for Persian to become once again the official language of the Courthouse in Zaranj and all over Iran. Yaqub with pure force, restored the Persian Language and forced Iranians after 222 years to speak Persian and not Arabic. Yaqub restored Iranian Language, Culture and Glory. Yaqub rebuilt Iran and Constructed Iran.

If in the 9th Century Yaqub would have not restored the Persian Language, Culture and History, then in the 10th Century Ferdowsi had no language to revive!

Let’s be extremely frank and blunt,

Ferdowsi have revived the Persian Language.
Yaqub have restored the Persian Language, Culture and Identity.
Yaqub have restored Iran.

If Yaqub Leis Saffarid would have not done his sacrifices to stand up, liberate Iran, restore Persian Language, Restore Persian Celebrations, Restore Persian Culture, Restore Persian History, Restore Persian Universities, Reconstruct Iran and Restore Iran, then today’s Iran in its form would have not been existed. Today’s Iran would have been just another Arab Nation and Iranians would speak Arabic and lacked any trace of the Persian Culture.

Today’s Iran and today’s Persian Language exists because once upon a time existed a simple Coppersmith named Yaqub Leis Saffarid.

Yaqub Leis Saffarid Circle at Dezful, Khuzestan, Iran where he rests

Yaqub Lived for 39 Hard Years.

Yaqub had always one foot in the saddle and one foot in the grave! This is how he lived. He lived on the run. He worked hard, he lived hard and he loved hard. He loved the working class and he was a working class hero. Yaqub would grab his “Bread and Onion Loqmeh (Bite)” and eat it on the run while riding his horse. Yaqub had those old boots on even in bed! Yaqub lived life on the run from one campaign to another, liberating one state after another. Yaqub lived this way so today as Iranians you can live in a Free Iran, celebrate Iranian celebrations, be proud of your Persian Culture and speak your Persian Language.

39 years of hard work as a folk hero, coppersmith, freedom fighter, liberator and a military commander. Yaqub was always on the run. Yaqub lived for Iran and Iranians.

Yaqub Leis Saffarid Circle, Dezful, Khuzestan, Iran
Dezful is Yaqub’s resting ground.

IRI and Yaqub Leis Saffarid

Today, when the Islamic Regime is bound to destroy everything Iranian and to promote everything Arabo-Islamic; today when the Islamic Beast refuses to restore Yaqub’s Tomb; today when the Islamic Abomination has infected our culture; today when AIOG (Arabo-Islamic Occupation Government) is trashing our identity as Iranians, it is time for you the Young Iranians and the Future Generation of Iran to rise up and hold “Akhtar Kaviani” Banner of Yaqub waving high in the skies of Iran.

IRI belittles Yaqub
You the Young Iranians grasp and surround Yaqub with your love.
IRI belittles everything Iranian.
You the Young Iranians worship everything Iranian.
IRI promotes Arabo-Islamic Culture.
You the Young Iranians burn Everything Arabo-Islamic starting with Quran!

Persians, … love Yaqub because his great heart was always beating for Iran and Iranians.
Persians,…  love Yaqub because he loved you.
May Yaqub’s Great Spirit rests in peace.

Yaqub Leis Saffarid Circle of Dezful in Khuzestan, Iran

In the near future, stay tuned for my detailed pictorial and biographical paper on Yaqub Leis Saffarid. In this paper I will vastly elaborate about the life and times of a simple coppersmith in boots who become the liberator of Iran and savior of the Persian Language and Culture.

For more information on Yaqub Leis Saffarid and Saffarid Dynasty read:

222 Years of Struggle for Independence of Iran: Part 4

Iran Dynasties and Monarchs of 8000 Years

Yaqub Leis Saffarid Statue at his resting place in Dezful, Khuzestan, Iran
Yaqub at battleground raising his sword and his horse

Yaqub Leis Saffarid Statue at his resting place Dezful, Khuzestan, Iran 840 – 879
Yaqub reached for the sky because for him sky was the limit.

Amr O Leis Saffarid (Yaqub’s Younger Brother) Persian Shah and Commander in Chief (879 - 901)

Amr O Leis Saffarid Persian Shah and Commander in Chief 9 AD

Saffarid Persian Armored Cavalry Officer 9 AD

Saffarid Persian Cavalry Commander and Lancers
L – R: Saffarid Cavalry Commander and Saffarid Cavalry Lancers riding to his right

Saffarid Persian Cavalry Commander and Lancers charge
L – R: Saffarid Cavalry Commander and Saffarid Cavalry Lancers riding to his right are charging

Saffarid Persian Armored Mace-man Cavalry Soldier 9 AD

Saffarid Persian Cavalry Liberating Iran from the Arabs

Saffarid Persian Commander (with sword) and Standard Bearer

Saffarid Persian Commander (with sword) on horse-top and Standard Bearer leading the Saffarid Persian Mace-men and Javelineer Infantrymen

Saffarid Persian Mace-men and Javelineer Infantry Company Unit

Saffarid Persian Javelineer Infantry Commander 9 AD

Saffarid Persian Javelineer Infantryman Soldier 9 AD

Mighty Saffarid Persian Swordsmen

Saffarid Persian Spearmen Liberating Iran from Arabs

Saffarid Persian Armored Archers

Saffarid Persian Foot Archers

Saffarid Persian Red Hat Special Forces Archers

Saffarid Persian Soldier

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